Judo is a martial art coming from the Far East and it originated from the numerous schools of jiu-jitsu that were transferred to Japan from China. The genesis of judo relates to the name of Jigoro Kano (1860-1938) who in 1882, together with the formation of the Kodokan Institute, formalized the appearance of judo. In the early years Kodokan Judo registered its strengths especially in 1886 when at one organized competition the members of the Kodokan won more fights than the members of the jiju-jitsu, and it is interesting to note that they won in a fairly easy manner without greater rudeness and bodily injuries. That is why we can say that judo is a martial art where the goal is to extract or throw out an opponent by controlling physical and mental energy without hitting blows. The word “Judo” is composed of two parts (ju-do) where the first part means “gentle” or “mild”, while the second part means “path” or “way”. From the beginning to the present, the judo is in a mild but steady rise and in a short time it reached world popularity first as part of the training of the police and the military, and later on as a sport and recreation. In 1928, Jigoro Kano’s visited Europe and defined judo rules as a sport discipline, in 1934 the first European judo championship was held. In 1964, judo first appeared at the Olympic Games in Tokyo and later in the women’s competitions in 1992.
Judo rules are as follows: competitions are held on a limited area of soft ground or mats, in order to avoid injuries during falling. The outfit is composed of wide trousers, a kimono and a colored belt which marks the category and experience of the competitors. The black belt is usually the highest, but with a long-standing activity it can level up to 7. The highest possible are 9 and 10 levels that are marked with red belt. Traditionally at the start of the competition, the contestants stand face to face at a distance of 4 meters and bowing. The competitors are judged by the technique, and with each direct winning technique one point is awarded which is called aIppon. The hop is awarded for raising the opponent above the height of the shoulders, a strong throwing, successful suffocation, holding and for throwing the opponent out of the marked space. Penal points for passivity or assault of the body of the opponent are also given. If a total of three penalty points is given, the opponent is declared as a winner. The duration of the competition is usually limited to 3 minutes, but changes are possible depending on the category and age of the competitors. The winner is a competitor who after the expiration of the time, has won most Ippons, and the least penalty points.
In Macedonia Judo appeared in 1962 and in a short time the youth is showing great interest in this martial sport, from Skopje it is transferred to Bitola, Veles and Prilep and then to other cities. The first official Macedonian championship in individual and team competition was held in 1967. The same year, Macedonian national team played in the team championship of the former Yugoslavia. In the upcoming period, Macedonian judokas achieved significant results in the strong competition of the former Yugoslavia, and especially Janevski Zvonko and Fetah Mustafa. During that period, several Macedonian judokas gained master class, and the most successful club for that period was “Vardar” – Skopje. After the independence of the Republic of Macedonia, the Judo Federation of Macedonia was admitted to full membership of the European Judo Union and the International Judo Federation. In the last few years Macedonia has regularly participated in the Balkan and European Championships, achieving significant results.